OriginThe Manx breed originated before the 18th century on the Isle of Man (hence the name), where they are common. They are called stubbin in the Manx language. Tail-less cats were common on the island as long as three hundred years ago. The tail-lessness arises from a genetic mutation that became common on the island (an example of the founder effect).
Folk beliefs claim the Manx cats came from the Spanish Armada; a ship foundered on the cliffs at Spanish Head on the coast of the Isle of Man. According to legend, the cats on the ship swam ashore and became an established breed. Legend has it that the cats originally went onboard the Spanish ship in the
According to the Cat Fanciers Association, Manx cats, especially white in color, are extremely rare. In some cases, white Manx cats may be worth well over $4,000. They generally like warmer climates without snow.
The Manx tail-less gene is dominant and highly penetrant; kittens from Manx parents are generally born without any tail. Having two copies of the gene is semi-lethal and kittens are usually spontaneously aborted before birth. This means that tail-less cats can carry only one copy of the gene. Because of the danger of having two copies of the tail-less gene, breeders have to be careful about breeding two tail-less Manxes together. Problems can be avoided by breeding tail-less cats with tailed ones and this breeding practice is responsible for the decreasing occurrence of spinal problems in recent years.
There are various legends that seek to explain why the Manx has no tail. In one of them, Noah closed the door of the ark when it began to rain and accidentally cut off the tail of the Manx cat who'd been playing and almost got left behind. Another account claims that the Manx is the offspring of a cat and a rabbit, explaining why it has no tail and rather long hind legs. In addition, Manx cats move with more of a hop than a stride, like a rabbit. This legend was further reinforced by the Cabbit myth. Recent postcards on the Isle of Man depict a cartoon scene in which a cat's tail is being run over and removed by a motorbike, because motorbike racing is popular on the Island.
Populations of tail-less cats also exist in a few other places in
Tail lengthManx kittens are classified according to tail length:
- Dimple rumpy or rumpy - no tail whatsoever
- Riser or rumpy riser - stub of cartilage or several vertebrae under the fur, most noticeable when kitten is happy and raising its 'tail'
- Stumpy - partial tail, more than a 'riser' but less than 'tailed' (in rare cases kittens are born with kinked tails because of incomplete growth of the tail during development)
- Tailed or longy - complete or near complete tail
- Stubby - half tail, or short tail.
The ideal show Manx is the rumpy and the stumpy (No tails or Stubbed tails); tailed and "Stubbie" Manx do not qualify to be shown, unless shown in an AOV (Any Other Variety) Class. In the past, kittens with stumpy or full tails have been docked at birth as a preventative measure due to some partial tails being very prone to a form of arthritis that causes the cat severe pain.
Some dishonest cat dealers have been known to chop off the tails of "normal" kittens and sell them as Manx.
Health"Manx Syndrome" is a colloquial name given to the condition which results when the mutant tailless gene shortens the spine too much. It can seriously damage the spinal cord and the nerves causing spina bifida as well as problems with the bowels, bladder, and digestion. Some live for only 3 years; the oldest recorded was 5 years when affected with the disease . In one study it was shown to affect about 20% of Manx cats, but almost all of those cases were rumpies, which exhibit the most extreme phenotype. Actual occurrences of this are rare in modern examples of the breed due to informed breeding practices. Most pedigreed cats are not placed until four months of age (to make sure that they are properly socialised) and this gives adequate time for any health problems to be identified.Renowned feline expert Roger Tabor has stated that "Only the fact that the Manx is a historic breed stops us being as critical of this dangerous gene as of other more recent selected abnormalities." The breed is also predisposed to rump fold intertrigo and corneal dystrophy.
The Manx breed, in spite of the absence of tail, has no problems with balance, mostly because of its long legs and round features.